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Exercise 19

Exercise 19

Use an infinitive phrase to create active and passive sentences using the given ideas and the verbs in parentheses. (Omit the by-phrase in passive sentences)

1 The teacher said to me, You may leave early. (permit)

The teacher permitted me to leave early. (active)

I was permitted to leave early. (passive)

2 The secretary said to me, Please give this note to Sue. (ask)

3 My advisor said to me, You should take Biology 109. (advise)

4 When I went to traffic court, the judge said to me, You must pay a fine. (order)

5 During the test, the teacher said to Greg, Keep your eyes on your own paper. (warn)

6 During the test, the teacher said to Greg, Dont look at your neighbours paper. (warn)

7 At the meeting, the head of the department said to the faculty, Dont forget to turn in your grade reports by the 15th. (remind)

8 Mr. Lee said to the children, Be quiet. (tell)

9 The hijacker said to the pilot, You must land the plane. (force)

10 When I was growing up, my parents said to me, You may stay up late on Saturday night. (allow)

11 The teacher said to the students, Speak slowly and clearly. (encourage)

12 The teacher always says to the students, You are supposed to come to class on time. (expect)

COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVES OR GERUNDS

Group A: verb + infinitive or gerund, with no difference in meaning

begin like hate

start love cant stand

continue prefer* cant bear

The verbs in Group A may be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund with little or no difference in meaning.

If the main verb is progressive, an infinitive (not a gerund) is usually used.

Group B: verb + infinitive or gerund, with a difference in meaning

remember regret

forget try

The verbs in Group B may be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, but the meaning is different.

(a) Judy always remembers to lock the door.

(b) Sam often forgets to lock the door.

(c) I remember seeing the Alps for the first time. The sight was impressive.

(d) Ill never forget seeing the Alps for the first time.

Remember + infinitive = remember to perform responsibility, duty, or task, as in (a)

Forget + infinitive = forget to perform a responsibility, duty, or task, as in (b)

Remember + gerund = remember (recall) something that happened in the past, as in (c)

Forget + gerund = forget something that happened in the past, as in (d)**

(e) I regret to tell you that you failed the test.

(f) I regret lending him some money. He never paid me back.

 

Regret + infinitive = regret to say, to tell someone, to inform someone of some bad news, as in (e)

Regret + gerund = regret something that happened in the past, as in (f)

(g) Im trying to learn English

(h) The room was hot. I tried opening the window, but that didnt help. So I tried turning on the fan, but I was still hot. Finally, I turned on the air conditioner.

Try + infinitive = make an effort, as in (g)

Try + gerund = experiment with a new or different approach to see if it works, as in (h)

*Notice the patterns with prefer:

prefer+gerund: I prefer staying home to going to the concert.

prefer+infinitive: Id prefer to stay home (rather) than (to) go to the concert.

**Forget followed by a gerund usually occurs in a negative sentence or in a question: e.g., Ill never forget, I cant forget, Have you ever forgotten, and Can you ever are often followed by a gerund phrase.



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