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4.2.

4.2.

. dQ < TdS, . , , .

dU ? TdS PdV,

dH ? TdS + VdP,

dF ? -SdT PdV,

dG ? -SdT + VdP.

,

dU ? 0 (S, V = const),

dH ? 0 (S, P = const),

dF ? 0 (T, V = const),

dG ? 0 (T, V = const).

:

, ( ).

, . ֳ , . :

dU = 0, d2U > 0 S i V = const,

dH = 0, d2H > 0 S i P = const,

dF = 0, d2F > 0 T i V = const,

dG = 0, d2G > 0 T i P = const.

. ﳿ

dS = 0, d2S < 0 U i V = const, H i P = const.

4.2 (S, G i F). , ( ) : , 㳿 ó . ˳ , , , .



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