неуважение, непочтительность, отсутствие набожности
4 pug nose
5 unkempt beard
6 to defend
ответчик, подсудимый, обвиняемый
7 merry disposition
веселий характер, вдача
веселый характер, нрав
to idle away one’s time
9 wise (wise after the event)
I have my doubts about him
to doubt something
У меня на его счет есть сомнения;
сомневаться, иметь сомнения
12 to mock
насмехаться (at), высмеивать, осмеивать
13 to undermine respect for
підривати повагу до ...
подрывать уважение к ...
14 to vote somebody guilty
признавать кого-либо виновным
15 death penalty
изгнание; ссылка; изгнанник
17 to smuggle (out of prison)
витягти з тюрми
вытащить из тюрьмы
19 weep (wept, wept)
Read the text, try to understand it
He was 70 years old, baldheaded, with an absurd pug nose and an unkempt beard. He wore nothing but a cloak – no shoes, no shirt, no underwear. He had the merriest of dispositions, no one had ever seen him angry or unkind. He was very brave: he had served as a foot soldier in four battles.
He was a philosopher. He did nothing but talk – talk to anyone who would listen to him, in the streets and marketplaces, discussing philosophy with students or sailors, or tradesmen, questioning men about what they believed in and why – always why – and how they could prove it. He met every answer with a new question, and each answer after that with another question.
Some Athenians called him a dangerous idler who did nothing but engage “in irony and jest on mankind”. The Oracle at Delphi had called him the wisest man alive, but Socrates, with his cool scepticism, said that his wisdom lay only in this: that unlike other men, he knew how great was his ignorance.
He refused to accept a penny for teaching. Indeed, he was sure he could never teach anyone anything; he said he tried to teach men how to think.
His enemies hated him. They said he made young minds doubt, if not mock everything, and it was undermining respect for democracy itself.
How did he defend himself?
“I shall not change my conduct even if I must die a hundred deaths ... Death does not matter, what matters is that I should do no wrong,” he said.
They voted him guilty. The prosecutor demanded the death penalty. Under the law of Athens it was now for the defendant to propose an alternative. Socrates could suggest that he be exiled. But he did not. His friends wanted to smuggle him out of prison but he refused to escape. When his wife Xanthippe broke into hysterics in the death cell, he sent her and his sons away. He spent his last hours discussing the problems that had always intrigued him: good and evil. His mind was never idle.
When his disciples saw him drink the cup of poison with dignity they wept. The man is gone but the “Socratic” method of questioning and teaching has always been respected since then.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the sentences with the new words and expressions. Translate them into Ukrainian/Russian.
Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations with their Ukrainian/Russian equivalents:
а. підривати повагу до
а. подрывать уважение к
b. знущатися з когось, чогось
b. издеваться, смеяться (над)
3 wear nothing but
c. заинтересовать, заинтриговать
4 prove something
d. на відміну від інших
d. в отличие от других людей
5 adangerous idler
6 unlike other men
f. нічого не носити, крім
f. ничего не носить, кроме
7 change one’s conduct
g. нижнее белье;
8 undermine respect for
h. згідно із законом
h. по закону
9 under the law
i. чашка отрути
i. чашка яда
10 intrigue somebody
j. опасный бездельник
11 acup of poison
k. ученики, последователи
12 mock everything
l. доказувати щось
l. доказать что-то
m. змінити поведінку
m. изменить поведение;
Exercise 3. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Use: “In my opinion”, “I agree”, “I disagree”, “I can’t agree with it”, “Nothing of the kind”, “How can one say such a thing?”, “It’s true”, “Rubbish”.
1. Socrates was a great Roman philosopher.
2. He lived in the Ancient Time(s).
3. He was a young handsome man when they voted him guilty.
4. He was of a cheerful disposition, ready to share his knowledge with other people.
5. He never asked his disciples any questions and made them mock everything..
6. Socrates was sure he was the wisest man in Athens and often spoke about his wisdom.
7. His friends loved him greatly and wanted to help him and he agreed.
8. Socrates preferred a cup of poison to an exile.
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:
1. What impression did Socrates produce on you as a personality?
2. What is your opinion of his disciples?
3. Why do you think he refused to escape?
4. What do you think he was persuaded of?
5. Why did they find him guilty? What did they accuse him of?