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The Babylonian captivity: how it was.

The Babylonian captivity: how it was.

In 471 B.C. under the king Jehoiachin the Nebuchadnezzar has besieged Jerusalem, 2Ki.24:11. Jehoiachin reigned 3 months and 10 days, 2Chr.36:9, that is from the end of December of 402 B.C. till March of 401 B.C. At that time (in the end of March) the Nabuchadnezzar has moved all Jerusalem to Babylon, 2Ki.24:15. This is beginning of captivity Babylonian. 10th of Tebeth (in January) of 470 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem (under king Zedekiah who "rebelled against the king of Babylon") 2Ki.24:20, 25:1. The siege proceeded till 461 B.C. when Jerusalem was taken. 7th of the Ab (in August) 461st B.C. the temple have been burnt also Jerusalem is destroyed, 2Ki.25:8 - 10. The population rest, 2Ki.25:11 has been at that time carried away. The captivity proceeded till the end of March of 401 B.C. In the first year of the Cyrus there was a decision about restoration of the Jerusalem Temple and the captivity end, 2 Chr.36:22, Ezra, 1:1 - 4. The first party of those who come back to Judea totaled about 50 thousand persons, Ezra, 2:64 - 65 which have come back within six months. To the beginning of the seventh month (October) of 401 B.C. they already lived in the cities, Ezra, 3:1. And in May of 400 B.C. building of the Temple, Ezra, 3:8 was begun.

The second wave of settlers was in April of 345 B.C., Ezra, 7:9. Session in Ezra, 10:16 has been made in January of 344 B.C. In the book of Ezra include events since March, 29th of 401 B.C. to January of 344. Then there was a story with the Nehemiah who in April of 332 B.C. has gone to Jerusalem for construction of its walls. Nehemiah was the governor in the land of Judea since 332 till 320 B.C. - Neh.5:14. The wall in Jerusalem has been constructed within 52 days, Neh.6:18 and is ended in September of 331 B.C.

20. The chronological Table of the Book of Esther, in years before Christ.

In the Book of Esther events from 352 to 340 B.C. are described.

The event name

Event date

Scriptures place

The beginning of reign of Ahasuerus

371

Esth.1:2

Ahasuerus made a feast unto all his princes and his servants

369

Esth.1:3

Esther is taken in royal house of Ahasuerus

January of 365

Esth.2:16

Haman has conceived to exterminate all Jews

April of 360

Esth.3:7

Decree of Ahasuerus, that for Jews is allowed to become on protection of the life

June of 360

Esth.8:12

Time of destruction of Jews appointed by Aman, became time of festival Purim (on the occasion of destruction of Haman and his supporters)

March of 359

Esth.9:1

21. Chronology of the Book of Job.

Words from Job 42:8 (and a ceremonial of sacrifice by itself) indicate time from the book Numbers, 23:1 that is, in days of Balaam. To be heard then brought 7 oxen and 7 rams. At that time the Departing from Egypt was already made, but the entrance in the earth promised yet has not come to the end. The Slavonic Bible indicate this time also: according to the Slavonic Bible, at that time there lived on the earth the Job when still there was live Moses. However the words of the Lord about the Job that there is none like him in the earth (there is no righteous man similar to him on the earth) see Job 1:8, could not be told, while the Moses still was alive. It because is told about Moses, that Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant (in house of God), Heb.3:5, therefore an episode from the Job 1:8 could occur only after death of Moses. In the book Numbers, 31:2-8 it is told, that vengeance of the Midianites and destruction of Balaam have occurred before death of Moses, which was in February, 1322 before Christ (see Chronology of the book called Numbers). It was the end of an epoch of Balaam and Balak. That is the specified episode from Job 1:8 could occur already after February, 1322 B.C. Place of Scripture from Job 1:15 indicate March (in March usually were plowing a field). It was March, 1322 B.C. when young men have died, that is sons of the Job. That children of the Job were adolescents specifies, that senior of them was no more than 20 years. Hence, the beginning of the book of the Job (if count since a birth of the first son) was in 1342 B.C. (1322+20). During a birth of the firstborn the Job could not be less than 20 years old. Hence, during death of adolescents Job was not less than 40 years. The Lord has returned loss of the Job, see the verse 10 of chapter 42nd of his book where it is told, that after this lived Job an 140 years Job 42:16, that is till 180 years old, not less.

20.1. The chronological Table of the Book of Job, in years B.C.

In the Book of Job events since 1342 to 1180 B.C. are described.

The event name

Event date

Scriptures place

Birth of the elder son of the Job (and the beginning of the Book of Job)

1342

-

Birth of other children of the Job

With 1341 for 1332

Job 1:2

The Lord praises the Job

March, 1322

Job 1:8

The Lord again praises the Job (in a week, when the next circle of their feasting days has come to the end, see Job 1:5)

March, 1322

Job 2:3

The Job repents (after several months, see Job 7:3)

The end of May, 1322

Job 42:6

The Lord returns loss of the Job - seven sons and three daughters of the Job

about 1321 - about 1300

Job 42:13

Death of the Job

1180

Job 42:17

22. Chronology of the Book of Psalms.

David's psalms are written in the period since 906 to 886 B.C.

In the first Book of the Chronicles, 16:7 it is told, that David has given for the first time a psalm. It was not earlier than 907 B.C. David began to reign in 917 B.C., 2Sam.6:1; Seven years and six months after that reigned in Hebron, 2Sam.5:5; Then he reigned in Jerusalem from the end of 910 B.C. First year he equipped the strong hold Zion, 2Sam.5:9 (within 909). Then built the house (within 908) after that David waged wars, 2Sam.5:17 - 25 (within 907). And only after that David has decided to carry the ark of God, 2Sam.6:2, for which David (in the beginning of 906 B.C.) has arranged a tabernacle, 2Sam.6:17. In the summer of 906 B.C. the ark has carried, David thus was bared, that is, there was a summer, 2Sam.6:20. Just then (see 1Chr.16:7) David has given for the first time a psalm.

Among David's last words (see 2Sam.23:1) there are also words from the Psalm 110, and also from the Psalm 58, that is the theme of Psalms was at him till the end of the life. As last year his activity practically it is possible to consider 886th B.C., excluding only last 4 months of 885 B.C. before death of king of David which was in April of the same year, 1Ki.1:1. But as are mentioned in this place of the Scripture of "years" means not less than two last years in which David any more did not give Psalms.

23. Chronology of the Book the Proverbs

The book The Proverbs is written in the period since 869 to 863 B.C. about what the following explanatory is given:

Solomon addressed the Proverbs first of all to the son (Prov.1:10, 2:1 and other) which was born in 888 B.C. and which was already able to marry (Prov.2:16), that is he was about 20 years - so, Solomon has started to write the book The Proverbs in 869 B.C.

Solomon has uttered 3 thousand proverbs, 1Ki.4:32 in a current the life, but in the book The Parable is available only 908 proverbs. In total Solomon had time for utterance of proverbs since 869 to 847th year in which he has died: 869 - 847 = 22 years. So, for 22 years = 3000 proverbs so, for utterance of 908 proverbs available in the book The Parable required no more than 7 years which are specified above.

24. Chronology of other books of Solomon:

1. Book Ecclesiastes begins with a mention of "all labour of a man with which he works, Eccl.1:3. Solomon was derived from the experience: he built much, see 2Chr.3:1-6. The end of building work is fallen on 863rd year. Solomon has constructed to himself houses, Eccl.2:4 (Solomon has ended the house in 863 B.C. i.e. book The Ecclesiastes has been begun by him practically in the same 863rd year, soon after the termination the Book The Proverbs. About time of the termination of this book see in following point 2.

2. The book The Song of Solomon has been written in 864 B.C.: in it the vineyard is mentioned, Eccl.8:11. According to Eccl.2:4, vineyards have been planted when Solomon has constructed to himself houses, i.e. not later than 863rd year (the house is more considerable in human life, than a vineyard; therefore it is mentioned by the first). In the end of book Ecclesiastes, 12:12 it is told, that he did not intend any more to write other books, and that book Ecclesiastes, thus, was last of written by him. The Book of The Song of Solomon, to the contrary, concerns blossoming of physical strengths of Solomon (instead of by the life end), therefore cannot be final in his life. Amount of the book The Proverbs is 26 pages* (for six years). Amount of the book Ecclesiastes 9 pages* for 2 years a minimum (3 years are accepted, meaning more advanced age of Solomon). Total 863-3=860 year, year of the termination of the book Ecclesiastes.

25. Chronology of the Book of the prophet Isaiah

Prophet Isaiah prophesied during the period since 623 to 566 B.C. Detailed chronology of his book is stated by the author in the book Last Invitation published in 1991 (section 12 of that book see).

26. Chronology of the Book of the prophet Jeremiah.

Prophet Jeremiah prophesied during the period since 501 to 461 B.C. Detailed chronology of his book is stated by the author in the book Last Invitation published in 1991 (section 13 of that book see).

27. Chronology of the Book The Lamentations of Jeremiah.

In the Book Lamentations events from 482 to 461 B.C. are described. In the first verse of this book is mentioned the city which has become tributary and became not populous. It was in the end of governing of king Jehoahaz which was deposed by the king Egyptian and has imposed on the land tax 100 talents of silver and talent of gold, and Jehoahaz has taken away to Egypt, 2Chr.36:3, 4. It was in 482 B.C. In Lam.4:10 hunger, and in Lam.4:12 - a capture of Jerusalem is mentioned. These events are mentioned also in 2nd Book of the Kings, 25:1-4 and date from 461 B.C.

28. Chronology of the Book of the prophet Ezekiel

The prophet Ezekiel prophesied during the period since 475 to 447 B.C. Detailed chronology of his book is stated by the author in the book Last Invitation published in 1991 (section 13 of that book see).

The chronological Table of the Book of Daniel (in years B.C.)

In the Book of Daniel events from 480 to 400 B.C. are described.

The event name

Event date

Scriptures place

3rd year of the king of Jehoiakim (and the beginning of the book of Daniel)

480

Dan.1:1

Reign of the Nebuchadnezzar

Since April 479* to 434

The second year of reign of the Nebuchadnezzar

479

Dan.2:1

The first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon

434

Dan.7:1

The third year of Belshazzar

432

Dan.8:1

The third year of the Cyrus

400

Dan.10:1

Death of Belshazzar (and the end of the Babylonian kingdom)

March 401 **

Dan.5:30

The first year of Darius of the seed of the Medes (and the beginning of the Persian kingdom)

Since March of 401

Dan.9:1

Reign of the Cyrus

402-371

Darius the Median

401-371

Dan.5:31

Darius king of Persia (Darius II ***)

359-352

Ezra 4:24

Death of the prophet of Daniel (and the end of the book of Daniel)

400

Dan.12:13 ****

Notes: *Determined in the book of Last Invitation, written in 1991

** According to the book of Jeremiah, 25:12 the God has told: when 70 years (captivity) are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, i.e. time-keeping from the end of March of 471 B.C. and till March of 401 B.C. when Belshazzar has been killed.

*** Darius, mentioned in the book of Ezra and Darius the Median are two different kings.

**** Since Dan.10:1 (i.e. from 3rd year of the Cyrus) there is a continuous speech (revelation) to Daniel and so till the end of the book of Daniel, where it is a question of the end of Daniel (about his death), Dan.12:13. I.e. death of Daniel (and the end of his book) dates from 400 B.C.

29. Chronology of the Book of prophet Hosea

Last year of prophecy Hosea is 590 B.C. As the king Judaic Azariah are reigned in parallel with the king Israeli Jeroboam II the beginning of the book of Hosea can be not earlier than 671st year B.C. and not later than 657 B.C. In this case it is possible to indicate years from 660 to 590 B.C. (if Hosea has died in 85 years old, that, in general, it is comprehensible). So, prophet Hosea prophesied during the period from 660 to 590 B.C.

30. Chronology of the Book of prophet Joel.

From the Joel, 1:6 follows, that to Jerusalem the army of the Nebuchadnezzar has come, and it was in April of 471 year B.C., but from the Joel, 1:7 follows, that there was not an April, and August (because grapes and figs do not happen in April). Some verses indicates to absence of bread, Joel, 1:9-11 and to absence of wine, see Joel, 1:5, and it was in August of 461 B.C. So, the book of prophet Joel dates from 461 B.C.

31. Chronology of the Book of prophet Amos.

In the beginning of the book of Amos it is mentioned Uzziah (and he is Azariah) which reigned from 671 to 620 B.C., also the Jeroboam II who governed from 697 to 657 B.C. that is means the period from 671 to 657 B.C. However in Amos 1:4 is mentioned Ben-hadad which lived during reign of Asa (1Ki.15:18) that is about 790 B.C. In the first book of Kings, 20:1 - 3 is told, that Ben-hadad was at war during lifetime of Ahab (and Asa), that is during the period from 791 to 788 B.C. Spesifically in 775 was war with Ben-hadad. Death of Ben-hadad is mentioned before accession Jehoram son of Jehoshaphat in 763. Ben-hadad has died in 764 B.C. that is 103 years prior to prophet Hosea, therefore it is a question of halls of Ben-hadad which have escaped till times Hosea. So, prophet Amos prophesied from 791 to 788 B.C. It is necessary to tell, that he prophesied about events till 300 years in advance. For example, prophecy from Amos, 1:5 was executed about 600th year B.C.

32. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Obadiah.

In the book of Obadiah, 1:20, are mentioned the captivity of this host of the children of Israel (already moved) of number the army. About this it is spoken also in 2Ki.24:14. In that time carpenters and smiths have been moved also. After their resettlement prophet Ieremiah has sent the letter to these people which were carried away, Jer.29:1, 2. At this time there was a story from prophet Hananiah, Jer.28:10-17. This time is known, see Jer. 28:1 that is in 4th year of reigning of Zedekiah or, in another way, 468 B.C. (year, in which Obadiah wrote the book).

33. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Jonah.

In days of the Jeroboam II (697 - 657 B.C.) the Jonah was already known as the prophet, see 2Ki.14:23-25. These years also are years of prophecy of the prophet of Jonah. Some details see more low in Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Nahum, point 35.

34. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Micah.

Time of prophecy the prophet of Micah is specified in the first verse of his book: he prophesied under kings Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah. Years of reign of these kings are specified in Table 15 which is basic for dating and other books of the Old Testament. Of the basis of told, the prophet Micah prophesied from 620 to 562 B.C.

35. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Nahum.

From 2nd book of Kings, 19:36,37 (and 2Ki.20:1) follows, that Nineveh still existed, when till the end of reign of Hezekiah there were 15 years, see 2Ki.20:6, that is in 547 B.C. Then as the king of Nineveh was Esar-haddon. In days of king Josiah (513 - 483 B.C.) destruction is promised to Nineveh (and it means, that it has reached till days of Josiah, Zeph.2:13). Since times of the Jonah for Nineveh it was promised destruction, but when inhabitants of Nineveh have repented, they have delayed destruction of Nineveh. But afterwards inhabitants of Nineveh began to act even worse and since 547 B.C. prophecies about destruction of Nineveh began to come true: so, it has been destroyed 185 thousand from the Assyrian army, and also the Assyrian king is killed in house of Nisroch. The prophet Nahum proclaims definitive destruction for Nineveh which will not repeat any more. The long-suffering God's is great: about 200 years after the Jonah Nineveh still existed. The prophet Nahum announces the decision of God: Nah.2:7. Last mention of the city of Nineveh concerns days of king Josiah (513 - 483 B.C.). It were years on the eve of destruction of Nineveh. But these years it is impossible to consider as years of prophecy of the prophet of Nahum: taking into account amendment (see chronology of the Book of prophet of Zephaniah, point 37) the book of the prophet of Nahum has been written in 550 B.C.

36. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Habbakuk.

In the book of the prophet of Habbakuk there is an insert from a psalm 17, see Hab.3:19. This Psalm is mentioned and in 2nd book of Samuel, 22nd chapter and has been written, when the Lord has relieved David from his all enemies. According to chronology of the Book of Psalms, David has given for the first time the Psalm not earlier than 906 B.C. In the Book of the prophet of Habbakuk there are also pointing out on the book of prophet Ezekiel (475 - 447 B.C.). Here these parallels: Ezek. 22 chapter (further there are numbers of verses of this chapter) 2. The bloody city, there are abominations; 3. There are Idols; 6. Sheds blood; 7. Abuses by father and mother, the newcomer and the fatherless offend.

The prophet Ezekiel specifies years in which he has received this or that prophecy, for example: Ezek.8:1, 20:1, etc. According to 22nd chapter of the book of Ezekiel, the prophet of Habbakuk, 1:2, 3 as well mentions the violence. 22nd chapter of prophet Ezekiel dates from 7th year of resettlement of Israel, that is from 465 B.C. (however it is appreciable, that has not come 461 yet). So, the prophet Habbakuk prophesied from 465 to 462 B.C.

37. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Zephaniah.

From the first verse of his book follows, that he prophesied in days of king Josiah (513 - 483 B.C.). Days of prophecy the prophet of the Nahum and prophecy the prophet of Zephaniah at first sight coincide days, but the book of the prophet of Nahum speaks about destruction of Nineveh. In Nah.1:14 there is a prophecy as which it is possible to consider executed in 2Ki.19:37, that is in 547 B.C. In this way the beginning of prophecy of the prophet of the Nahum dates from approximately 550 B.C., and the end - before the beginning of prophecy the prophet of Zephaniah. The prophet Zephaniah prophesied during the period from 513 to 483 B.C.

38. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Haggai.

Time of prophecy the prophet of Haggai is precisely specified in the first verse of his book: it is the second year of king Darius that is 358 B.C. About years of reign of king Darius point 18 see in Chronology of the Book of Ezra.

39. Chronology of the Book of prophet of Zechariah.

Time of prophecy of the prophet of Zechariah is specified in the first verse of his book, and also in Zech.7:1 that is since 2nd till 4th year of governing of king Darius. About years of reign of Darius see Chronology of the Book of Ezra. Prophet Zechariah prophesied from 358 to 356 B.C.

40. Chronology of the Book of the prophet of Malachi.

The majority of the references which are available in the book of Malachi (in Russian Bible): on the book of prophet Isaiah (number 9), on the book of Psalms (number 6) and also on other books of the Old Testament have no acknowledgement and are not connected with the previous history of Israelite people. Are mentioned solemn feasts (Mal.2:3) and priests (Mal.2:1) but these of sacrifices were brought already in the second Temple. In Mal.2:11 is mentioned the marriage of the daughter of a strange god which dates from 319 B.C., see book of Nehemiah, 13:23. After activity of the Nehemiah, Jews could not trespass at once again: some time was required. Considerably, that the Malachi was the priest, see Neh.10:3. Services of priests are restored by the Nehemiah (among the latest events of the book of the Nehemiah, 13:30) that is activity of the Malachi (or Malchijah, Neh.10:3) began when the book of the Nehemiah came to an end, that is in 319 B.C. However the expression which has been written down in Neh.13:6, its language and a turn of phrase use in that case when there has passed not one year since time of informed event, but several (not less than two years) and write about it in the third year. That is the end of the book of the Nehemiah dates from 317 B.C. (but not earlier than). The end of the book of the Nehemiah can mean and death of its author, that is the Nehemiah. After death of the Nehemiah the negative phenomena in Israelite people could again renew (but not less than in couple of years). That is the book of the prophet of the Malachi has been written about 315 B.C.



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