...
Chronology of the New Testament

Chronology of the New Testament

When the Christ has died?

The strict and exact interrelation of the events described in the Bible (both in Old, and in the New Testament) has led for a long time already the author of this book to 31st year of our Era when the Christ has been crucified. Besides, specifying this year, I cannot use habitual for many name: 31st year "anno Domini", for the reason, that chronology by any calendars accepted all over the world, at all does not correspond to chronology in dominical years. At the best there is a difference in 2 years. Easier speaking, in the world it is unknown not only year of death of Jesus Christ, but exact year of His birth is not known even. 30 years ago still it was possible to speak about all it in the uncertain form, however detailed research of these and of many other things to adjacent questions, for a long time already have led the author to concrete year of our Era. And today I quite confidently and definitely can declare: Jesus Christ has been crucified in 31st Our Era (in calculation both Julian, and Gregorian calendars). For me it is already the History part in which nothing can be changed. There are no doubts and that the Christ has died in March of 31st of new Era.

Certainly, that the average church-goer of an average place of a pray can not guess existence of all these questions, including about existence of computer calendars, for example Kaluach. According to these calendars (and not only computers) Judaic Passover in 31st of our Era was in March. If is more exact, on March, 27th there was that in the Gospels the first day of the feast is called, Mat.26:17, Mark 14:12. About this day the evangelist Luke, 22:7 speaks also. This day is important because in evening of this day (and is closer by the night) has begun great sapper where Jesus introduced to accept the cup with wine and bread in memoirs Him, Jesus (Luke 22:17 - 19). Well, with the first day like were defined but further problems begin: the matter is that on March, 27th 31 were Tuesday. Well as some will tell, we have got used, what the Last Supper was on Thursday, and here Tuesday? No, no, we do not agree! And move Supper of the Lord on habitual Thursday (and it is two days of a difference). Having moved Last Supper on Thursday, such believers have calmed down: claims, now all on the places: on Thursday it is made Last Supper, on Friday the Christ has been crucified, and in Sunday has risen . But, at such them arranging there is still a big problem: instead of to be dead three days and three nights, Mat.12:40, the Christ was at rest only two nights and one all the day. Two nights is since Friday on Saturday and since Saturday on Sunday, and one all the day - only on Saturday. On Friday the Christ has died already in the end of day, and really it is all the day? And on Sunday Maria has come to the sepulcher early when it was still dark, John20:1. How it is possible to consider day which did not begin yet? (It was yet dark). Besides, Maria has seen, that the sepulcher is empty, the Christ there was not, that is He has risen even earlier, before Maria's coming when was at all dark. Really the Christ promised three days and three nights that is three time in twenty four hours, and it has turned out almost twice less (hardly more than one and a half days)? Unless there can be a lie at the God? Certainly, no! Therefore we refuse to recognize above-stated autocratic rearranging Last Supper on Thursday. A conclusion: if to count specified whole three days and three nights from Sunday it turns out that the Christ has been crucified on Thursday on March, 29th 31 AD. Here an hourly picture of an event those days:

Table 1, events of Thursday, on March, 29th 31 AD (word "Friday" see John19:14 in the original is not present)

Ordinal

Event time

The event name

1

9 a.m.

The CRUCIFIXION of JESUS CHRIST, Mark15:27. Those who crucified him divide clothes of the Christ, Mat.27:35

2

10 a.m.

Warriors crucify robbers, on the right and to the left of Jesus, Jn.19:18

3

10 - 11 a.m.

The passing mocks Jesus, Mark15:19. Warriors sitting guard Him, Mat.27:36

4

11 - 12 a.m.

Scribes and high priests sneer at Jesus, Mark15:31, robbers also railed on Jesus, Mat.27:44. The people standing look, Lk.23:35. Warriors also swear bring to Jesus vinegar, Lk.23:36. One of villains is converted to Jesus, Lk.23:40

5

12 a.m.

There comes darkness on all earth, Lk.23:44

6

12 - 13 p.m.

Mother, and also some women and pupil John approach more close to a cross. Jesus charges Mother to pupil John, Jn.19:27. The crowd still beholds an event though it is frightened by darkness

7

13 - 14

Jesus speaks "I thirst", Jn.19:28. Warriors bring vinegar. All knowing Him stand in a distance, Lk.23:49

8

14 - 15

On the earth the darkness, Mark15:33 proceeds. The people still look. Last travails of the Christ before death

9

15 hours p.m.

Jesus has loudly proclaimed: my God..., why Thee have left Me? , Mark15:34 also passes the Spirit in hands of the Father heavenly, Lk.23:46. DEATH of the CHRIST ON the CROSS. At the moment of death of the Christ there is an earthquake, in the Temple the veil was tore apart. Centurion and the warriors guarding Jesus were rather frightened and named his son of God, Mat.27:54.

10

16 - 17

The first hour as words of the Christ from Mat.12:40 have started to come true

11

17 - 18

All people which have converged on a show, come back in the city, Lk.23:48

12

18 - 19

High priests, having come back in the city, say to the Pilate, that he, the Pilate has incorrectly written the inscription on the cross. A Pilate disagrees, Jn.19:21. Jews also asked the Pilate to interrupt at crucified shins as then there was an eve of Judaic Saturday, Jn.19:31. The note: in the Gospels original in the Greek language there is no word "Friday" in this place of the Scripture. Instead of "Friday" is mentioned eve of Judaic Saturday which began from 18 o'clock on Thursday, on 29th March 31 and proceeded till 18 oclock on Friday on 30th March 31 AD. When Jews after a show have come to the Pilate, this eve has already begun.

13

19 hours p.m.

Warriors have come (having received permissions of the Pilate) and have interrupted shins at crucified (except Jesus). The warrior spears to Him edges, Jn.19:32.

14

After 18 hours

After leaving of Jews from the Pilate, to him Joseph of Arimathaea has come to ask body of Jesus. A Pilate has ordered to give the body, Mat.27:57,58

15

19 - 20

Joseph of Arimathaea has gone from the Pilate to take off the Body of Jesus. Joseph has come after to Jesus the warrior has already speared edges, Jn.19:38. Appeared in time Nicodemus has brought a mixture of myrrh and in the accelerated order (because of eve of Judaic Saturday, see above) have put Jesus in a new cave which was close, Jn.19:39 - 42. Word "Friday" in the original is not present. Some of women were present at burial of Jesus, Mat.27:61, Mark.15:47 though was already about 20 o'clock in the evening. In the Gospel according to Luke (in Russian Bible) it is told, that that day was Friday, Lk.23:54. Certainly, the word "Friday" is not present in the Scripture original. On the calculation of time standard now there was a Thursday, on March, 29th 31, 20 o'clock in the evening. However on Judaic concepts (in this point they coincide with biblical) time of already next day from 18 o'clock began. Since time of death of the Christ by 18 o'clock Thursday 3 hours have passed.

16

20 - 21

After burial of Jesus the woman have come back in a city (home) and, having come back, have prepared aromas and ointments, Lk.23:56. Some think, that they have prepared these ointments immediately as soon as have come home. However Luke only says, that ointments have been prepared AFTER their returning, but, how much after (and when), he does not specify. Such specification is done by Mark: they have bought them when the Sabbath was past, Mark16:1

17

21 - 24

By 21 o'clock (on Thursday, on March, 29th 31 AD) active actions of high priests, scribes, the Pilate and other participants come to an end. But these words cannot be attributed to the Christ: after the death He has revived by the Spirit and has descended in a dungeon (in so-called Hades) and preached unto the spirits of the people living in days Noah being there, 1 Pet.3:18 - 20. That is since 15 o'clock Thursday has begun His three days and three nights in the heart of the earth, Mat.12:40. At 24 o'clock (on modern concepts) has ended Thursday, however according to the Bible Thursday has ended still at 18 o'clock.

Table 2, events of Friday, on March, 30th 31 AD

item

Event time

The event name

18

24 - 6 a.m.

The first night of abiding of the Lord in a dungeon

19

6 a.m. 18 p.m.

The second day of abiding of the Lord in a dungeon; it was Friday on March, 30th 31, called eve of Judaic Sabbath. From the moment of death of Jesus by 18 o'clock of this day there have passed 27 hours.

20

18 - 19

According to Judaic tradition, Friday that is eve of Sabbath (or the preparation) has ended at 18 o'clock, however still well it was visible (light time of day still proceeded). It also is the day mentioned in Mat.27:62. At this time high priests and Pharisees have come to the Pilate and asked to appoint guards at a sepulcher of Jesus. A Pilate has told that they have guards: go your way, make it as sure as ye can.

21

19 - 20

At the sepulcher of Jesus the guards are put, Mat.27:66 and the stone was sealing

22

20 - 24

The end of Friday on March, 30th 31. From the moment of death of the Christ by 24 o'clock of this day there have passed 33 hours.

Table 3, events of Saturday, on March, 31st 31 AD

item

Event time

The event name

23

24 - 6

The second night of abiding of the Lord in the dungeon. By 6 hours a.m. He has stayed there 39 hours

24

6 a.m. - 18 p.m.

On Saturday of the woman of "myrrh bearer" (and other pupils of the Lord) remained in rest on a precept, Lk.23:56. It is the third day of abiding of the Lord in the dungeon

25

18 - 24

The end of Saturday on March, 31st. There have passed 57 hours from the moment of death of the Christ on the cross

Table 4, events of Sunday, on April, 1st 31 AD

Item

Event time

The event name

26

24-6 a.m.

The third (and last) night of abiding of the Lord in the heart of the earth

27

About 6 a.m.

CHRIST IS RISEN FROM THE DEAD!

When was Last Supper the Christ with apostles?

The hourly picture of events occurring since Thursday on March, 29th 31 till Sunday on April, 1st 31 AD is above given. But there is yet not investigated Wednesday and Tuesday of the same week. As the Christ has been crucified on Thursday on March, 29th 31 in 9 o'clock in the morning (point 1 of the above-stated Table see) that it would be possible to begin with earlier events of day of the crucifixion, i.e. from court of the Pilate (before the crucifixion there was a trial of the Pilate over the Christ, His way to Golgotha, etc. events). But, it appears what to act thus simply is impossible: the matter is that the Pilate judged the Christ not once, but twice, and at different times and with a considerable break between courts. The evangelist Luke informs on it only.

The first court is described at Luke in 23rd chapter, verses from 1 to 6. When the Pilate has learnt, that Jesus is from area of Galilee has sent Jesus to the Herod in order he was judged by the Herod, Lk.23:7. Jesus have led to the Herod where have gone as well high priests with scribes, Lk.23:8-10. At the Herod they strenuously accused Jesus. Besides it, the Herod offered Him many questions. Then Jesus has been humiliated and mocked by warriors of the Herod. After that Jesus has been dressed in light clothes and sent back to the Pilate, Lk.23:11. And only after that the second court of the Pilate has begun, after which Jesus have led to Golgotha, Lk.23:13. A remarkable detail: though the Matthew does not inform, that was a break between the first and second drive of the Christ to the Pilate, but places between them story from Judas when he has returned money to high priests, Mat.27:3-10. How many time lasted the second court of the Pilate and a way of Jesus to Golgotha? In Mat.26:40, 27:45, 46, Mark.15:25, 34, Lk.23:44, Jn.19:14, etc. places record of time indicated in hours. We make it too, as without hours it is impossible to make a full picture of events occurring in those days. The hourly picture of events of that court is lower given:

Table 5, events of Thursday, on March, 29th 31 AD

Event

The minimum time that expended for event

Warriors of the Herod have led of Jesus to the Pilate; they have let know about it to the Pilate. He gathers and leaves on court. The first questions of the Pilate to Jesus.

10 minutes

Pilate convokes high priests, chiefs and the people, Lk.23:13, i.e. sends to them the people with a message, that the Herod has sent Jesus back and so that these chiefs have come to court to the Pilate. Pilate waits, while they gather.

40 minutes

When they, at last, have gathered, the Pilate has continued the court, Mat.27:17. At this time has come the messenger from the wife and has a little distracted the Pilate from court, Mat.27:19. A whispering of high priests with the people to ask to release Barabbas, Mat.27:20. The further questions of the Pilate to Jesus.

14 minutes

Pilate takes water (governors usually do not have water at their armchairs, water needs to be brought) and washes hands.

2 minutes

Warriors conduct Jesus into the common hall. Gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers, Mat.27:27.

15 minutes

Warriors somewhere find a scarlet robe (probably earlier was at the Pilate) and change clothes of Jesus, Mat.27:28.

5 minutes

Find a thorns, weave a crown, assign to a head of Jesus, sneer at him, Mat.27:29.

10 minutes

Jesus beat on a head, spit, again change clothes, Mat.27:30, 31.

15 minutes

Besides, the Pilate has still released Barabbas, Mark15:15 (warriors have gone in prison, took Barabbas, have led to the Pilate), the Pilate lets off Barabbas to the people.

Apprx. 15 minutes

Pilate took Jesus from warriors and has brought in a crown of thorns, Jn.19:4 (then Jesus again enter inside common hall).

3 minutes

Conversation of the Pilate with Jews; the Pilate goes in common hall and speaks with Jesus, Jn.19:9.

3 minutes

From now on the Pilate searches to release Jesus and as though "plays for time", Jn.19:12-15.

10 minutes

Final court of the Pilate: Jesus prosecutes on the crucifixion.

5 minutes

Jesus taken on the crucifixion. Conversation with the Simon (which first disagreed to carry the cross).

3 minutes

The way to Golgotha takes not less half an hour

30 minutes

Total has passed time (not less): 3 HOURS

The data given above the most minimum, but also they takes in total 3 hours. Knowing it, we will draw now necessary conclusions:

1. As Jesus has been crucified in 9 o'clock in the morning then from the Herod have led of Jesus unto court to the Pilate in 6 o'clock in the morning, not later. The way from location of the Herod to common hall of the Pilate too demanded time (about a half an hour), that is the Herod has sent Jesus to the Pilate nearby 5:30 a.m. Means, to offer Jesus many questions, to sneer with warriors and to change clothes of Jesus the Herod should at night (for half an hour it was impossible to make all it; to be at the Herod less than 1 hour - it is unreal under the evangelical narrative). So, 5:30 minus 1 hour = 4:30 at night. It turns out, Jesus have led to the Herod not later 4:30 at night.

2. If to remember, that for road from the Pilate it is required about 30 minutes it turns out, the Pilate has sent of Jesus to the Herod at 4 o'clock in the morning! (See Lk.23:7).

3. Further discrepancy is more: after all the Pilate has sent Jesus after the first court over him, see Lk.23:1-7. The first court too has taken time (well at least half an hour) and it means that high priests have led Jesus on court to the Pilate in 3:30 at night!

4. But before taking Jesus to the Pilate, they still had meeting to betray His death, Mat.27:1, Lk.22:66-71 (too it is necessary not less half an hour). But whether there was a meeting at 3 o'clock in the morning? The specified places of the Scripture say that the meeting was in the daytime, Lk.22:66. In the course of events stated above considerably, that some of them are impossible, that is could not occur that day (in day of the crucifixion): warriors COULD NOT lead Jesus to the Herod in 4 o'clock in the morning as the Herod slept at this time. Pilate COULD NOT send Jesus to the Herod in 4 o'clock in the morning as the Pilate slept at this time. Besides, elementary rules of behavior would not allow him to make it; besides for the Pilate there was no hurry.

Pilate COULD NOT make court (the first court) over Jesus at 3 o'clock in the morning (!) the Pilate slept at this time. Besides, the Scripture testifies, that it has occurred when the morning was come, Mat.27:1, 2.

High priests COULD NOT lead Jesus to the Pilate at 3 o'clock in the morning. Pilate was the high-ranking chief and they could not disturb him during such time.

The Meeting of high priests was not at 3 o'clock in the morning because in the Scripture it is told, that it was day, see Lk.22:66.

All it means that it is impossible to cram in to 3 hours all these events, that is: 1) meeting of high priests, 2) a drive of Jesus to the Pilate, 3) the first court of the Pilate, 4) sending of Jesus to the Herod, 5) stay of Jesus at the Herod, 6) sending of Jesus from the Herod to the Pilate, 7) the second court of the Pilate over Jesus, 8) the way to Golgotha and 9) the crucifixion of Jesus.

In turn it testifies that the part of these events has occurred earlier (in day before, in the last day). Really, on Thursday on March, 29th 31 have occurred only events, since 6 points till 9. A conclusion: events from point 1 to 5 (see above) have occurred on Wednesday, on March, 28th 31 AD. The hourly Table of events of this day is lower given:

Table 6, events of Wednesday, on March, 28th 31 AD

Item

Events

Scripture place

Event time

1

The elders of the people, the chief priests and the scribes gather. Jesus enter into their council

Lk.22:66

6 - 7 a.m.

2

All Sanhedrim searches for false witnesses against Jesus in order to prosecute Him death, and does not find. Many false witnesses came.

Mat. 26:59,60

7 - 9

3

Interrogation of Jesus by the high priest and mockeries at him.

Mat.26:62-68 Lk.22:67 - 71

9 - 10

4

All set of accusers have led Jesus to the Pilate.

Lk.23:1

10 - 11

5

Jesus has appeared before the Pilate. The first court of the Pilate.

Lk.23:2 - 5

11 - 12

6

Pilate sends Jesus to the Herod. A way to the Herod.

Lk.23: 7

12 - 13

7

The Herod has dinner (it is impossible to imagine, that such the regal person as the Herod has done without a dinner and has refused usual food intake)

-

13 14 p.m.

8

The Herod offers Jesus many questions. High priests too have come to the Herod and strenuously accused of Jesus.

Lk.23:8 - 10

14 - 16

9

The Herod with the warriors humiliates Jesus and when have laughed at him, has dressed Him in light clothes.

Lk.23:11

16 - 17

10

The Herod decides to send Jesus back to the Pilate. If the Herod has sent Jesus to the Pilate immediately, already at 18 o'clock Jesus would be at the Pilate. But there were following obstacles: 1) the hasty court over Jesus could humiliate the Herod in the opinion of the Pilate: the Pilate could tell, that the Herod too quickly solves affairs, not having understood as should be. 2) Besides day, it is possible to tell, then has already come to an end and to send Jesus during such time it would be impolite in relation to the Pilate: after all the Pilate all the same was the deputy of the Roman emperor. A Pilate would not begin to make court over Jesus in the evening wherefore his, so to say the working day has already ended. From the text of the given chapter follows, that the Herod has sent Jesus to the Pilate about 6 o'clock in the morning (and that only such time keeps within evangelical narrative frameworks).

Lk.23:11

To send Jesus back the Herod has accepted the decision about 18 p.m. The given decision is executed in the morning next day (see Table 7 lower).

Table 7, events of Thursday on March, 29th 31 AD

Item

Events

Scripture place

Event time

1

Warriors of the Herod have led Jesus to the Pilate, carrying out the command of the Herod given by him the last day

-

Nearby 5:30 a.m.

2

Warriors of the Herod have led Jesus to the Pilate

-

About 6 a.m.

3

Pilate, having learnt, that have brought back Jesus, starts to convene high priests and chiefs Judaic (which did not know, that Jesus again is at the Pilate). If the Herod has immediately sent Jesus to the Pilate (not waiting morning of next day) then high priests and the other people, come to the Herod, Lk.23:10, too would follows Jesus to the Pilate to accuse Him there. But as Jesus has appeared at the Pilate only in the morning of next day the Pilate had to convene high priests, chiefs and the people.

Lk.23:13

6 7 a.m.

The further is described in previous Table 5. The main conclusion: Last Supper the Christ with Apostles has taken place at night from 27th to 28th March of 31 AD (in the night from Tuesday to Wednesday).



...